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Radiotherapy commonly is used to treat cancer and other conditions involving abnormal tissue growth, such as hyperthyroidism.
Measurement of the amount of radioactive carbon remaining in the material thus gives an estimate of its agea technique for determining the age of minerals based on the occurrence in natural rubidium of a fixed amount of the radioisotope 87Rb which decays to the stable strontium isotope 87Sr with a half-life of 5 x 1011 years.In nuclear medicine, tracer radioisotopes may be taken orally or be injected or inhaled into the body.The radioisotope circulates through the body or is taken up only by certain tissues.One way of artificially inducing nuclear transmutation is by bombarding stable isotopes with alpha particles.
Radioactive isotopes have many useful applications. In particular, they are central to the fields of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy.Some of these are found in nature; the rest are produced artificially as the direct products of nuclear reactions or indirectly as the radioactive descendants of these products.