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The part referring to the Iberian Peninsula is preserved in the Ora Maritima (The Maritime Shores) of the Latin writer Rufus Festus Avienus, who wrote down excerpts much later, during the 4th century.Lines 425–431, which come after a description of the Pillars of Herakles (The Straits of Gibraltar), say that Mainake is close to the island of Noctiluca: hos propter autem mox iugum Barbetium est Malachaeque flumen urbe cum cognomine Menace priore quae vocata est saeculo. Near them [the Tartessians] is Cape Barbetium and the river Malacha with the town of the same name, formerly called Menace, under Tartessian dominion.Marsilio Ficino (1433–1499) and his Platonic Academy translated Plato.Poliziano (1454–1494) translated Herodian and portions of Epictetus and Plutarch.The line between Greek scholarship and Arab scholarship in Western Europe was very blurred during the Middle Ages and the early Modern Period.Thus, depending of context, the concept of the transmission of Greek Classics is often used to refer to the collective knowledge that was obtained from the Arab and Byzantine Empires, regardless of where the knowledge actually originated.According to the ancient sources it was gradually abandoned after the battle of Alalia and the consequent collapse of the Phocaean Greek trade, which led the native inhabitants to shift their residence to the Phoenician-Punic Malaka.The Greek historian and geographer Strabo (64 BC–24 AD) says in his Geographica that in his time some thought this colony was the city of Malaca, a supposition he contradicted by pointing out that the ruins of Mainake could still be seen near Malaca and showed the regular urban plan of the Greeks, versus the haphazard Semitic layout of Malaka: The first city on this coastline is Malaca, which is as far distant from Calpe as Gades is.
They were encouraged by the Tartessians, who may have desired to end the Phoenician economic monopoly.
Aristotle) to those Greco-Roman scholars in the classical Roman Empire (e.g. Though these works were originally written in Greek, for centuries the language of scholarship in the Mediterranean region, many were translated into Syriac, Arabic, and Persian during the Middle Ages and the original Greek versions were often unknown to the West.